Recent research conducted by University College London suggests that female athletes may have faster reaction times and make fewer errors when they are on their period, despite feeling that their performance suffers during this particular phase of their menstrual cycle. The study, which involved over 200 athletes, aimed to shed light on the higher injury rates experienced by female athletes compared to their male counterparts. This discrepancy has led to discussions about the potential factors contributing to the elevated risk of injuries in female athletes.

One of the key differences between individuals with a menstrual cycle and those without, or who are using hormonal contraception, is the presence of fluctuating hormones. While the specific impact of these hormonal changes on performance is not yet fully understood, research suggests that variations in brain function across the menstrual cycle could affect an athlete’s cognitive abilities and potentially make them more susceptible to injuries. This relationship between hormonal fluctuations and brain function has been a topic of interest among neuroscientists, yet sports scientists have only recently begun to investigate how changing hormones can influence athletes’ performance and injury risk.

In a study led by Flaminia Ronca and her team, 241 participants, including male athletes, menstruating female athletes, and those using contraception, underwent cognitive tests designed to simulate the mental demands of sports competitions. The results indicated that female athletes generally performed worse on cognitive tasks during the late follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle, while their performance peaked during menstruation. Despite feeling that their abilities were diminished during their period, female athletes demonstrated improved cognitive performance during this phase.

The findings of the study challenge common beliefs about the impact of menstruation on female athletes’ performance. Contrary to expectations, female athletes performed better during their period, highlighting the need to reevaluate societal assumptions about women’s abilities during different phases of their menstrual cycle. This unexpected result raises questions about the relationship between hormonal fluctuations and cognitive performance, prompting further research into the effects of various types and doses of hormonal contraceptives on athletes’ brain function.

As researchers continue to investigate the connection between menstrual cycles and athletic performance, there is a growing interest in exploring how hormonal contraceptives may influence cognitive abilities and potentially mitigate the risk of injuries in female athletes. By delving deeper into the nuanced interactions between hormones, brain function, and performance, scientists hope to provide valuable insights that can enhance the training and well-being of women in sports. The evolving understanding of these complex dynamics offers new opportunities for optimizing female athletes’ performance and reducing the prevalence of injuries in competitive sports.


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